Mumps Virus Antibody, IgG, Serum
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Mumps virus, together with parainfluenza virus types 1-4, respiratory syncytial virus, and measles virus are classified in the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps is an acute infection which causes the painful enlargement of the salivary glands in approximately 70% to 90% of children (4-15 years of age) who develop clinical disease.(2) In 5% to 20% postpubertal individuals, testicular pain (orchitis in males) and abdominal pain (oophoritis in females) can occur. Other complications include pancreatitis (<5% of cases) and central nervous system disease (meningitis/encephalitis) that occur rarely (about 1 in 6,000 cases of mumps). Widespread routine immunization of infants with attenuated mumps virus has changed the epidemiology of this virus infection. Since 1989, there has been a steady decline in reported mumps cases. However, a recent outbreak of mumps, in 2006 re-emphasized that this virus continues to persist in the population, and laboratory testing may be needed in clinically compatible situations.
The laboratory diagnosis of mumps, is typically accomplished by detection of antibody to mumps virus. However due to the limitations of serology (eg, inadequate sensitivity and specificity), additional laboratory testing including virus isolation or detection of viral nucleic acid by PCR in throat, saliva or urine specimens should be considered in clinically compatible situations.
Determination of post-immunization immune response of individuals to mumps virus
Documentation of previous infection with mumps virus in an individual with no previous record of immunization to mumps virus
Positive: Presence of detectable IgG-class antibodies indicates response to immunization or infection with mumps virus at sometime in the past. Individuals testing positive are considered immune to mumps virus infection.
Negative: Absence of detectable IgG-class antibodies suggests lack of a specific immune response to immunization or no previous exposure to mumps virus infection.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Mumps virus shares antigenic relationships with other viruses of the paramyxovirus group; therefore, serologic cross-reactions are possible, but uncommon with this test procedure.(2)
IgG-class antibodies to mumps virus may be present in serum specimens from individuals who have received blood products within the past several months but have not been immunized or experienced past infection with this virus.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Negative (reported as positive, equivocal, or negative)
Index value 0.00-0.89=negative
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Harmsen T, Jongerius MC, van der Zwan CW, et al: Comparison of a neutralization enzyme immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for evaluation of immune status of children vaccinated for mumps. J Clin Microbiol 1992 Aug;30(8):2139-2144
2. Hodinka RL, Moshal KL: Childhood infections. In Essentials of Diagnostic Virology. Edited by GA Storch. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2000, pp168-178