Mycoplasma hominis, Molecular Detection, PCR
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Mycoplasma hominis has been associated with a number of clinically significant infections, although its clinical significance is often unclear as it is part of the normal genital flora.
Mycoplasma hominis has been found in the respiratory specimens and spinal fluid of neonates, however the clinical significance of such findings is often unclear, as spontaneous clinical recovery may occur without specific treatment. In premature infants, however, clinical manifestations of meningoencephalitis have been reported.
Mycoplasma hominis, along with a number of other organisms, proliferates during bacterial vaginosis, although its contribution to the associated clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis is unknown. Mycoplasma hominis may play a role in some cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, usually in combination with other organism. Mycoplasma hominis may be isolated from amniotic fluid of women with preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, spontaneous term labor, or chorioamnionitis; there is evidence that it may be involved in postpartum fever or fever following abortion, usually as a complication of endometritis.
Mycoplasma hominis has rarely been associated with septic arthritis (including prosthetic joint infection), pyelonephritis, intraabdominal infection, wound infection, endocarditis, central nervous system infection (including meningoencephalitis, brain abscess, central nervous system shunt infection and subdural empyema) and pneumonia. Extragenital infection typically occurs in those with hypogammaglobulinemia or depressed cell-mediated immunity; in lung transplant recipients, Mycoplasma hominis has been associated with pleuritis and mediastinitis.
PCR detection of Mycoplasma hominis is sensitive, specific, and provides same-day results. The described PCR assay has replaced conventional culture for Mycoplasma hominis at Mayo Medical Laboratories due to its speed and equivalent performance to culture.
Rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of Mycoplasma hominis from synovial fluid, genitourinary, reproductive, lower respiratory sources, and wound specimens
A positive PCR result for the presence of a specific sequence found within the Mycoplasma hominis tuf gene indicates the presence of Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the specimen.
A negative PCR result indicates the absence of detectable Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the specimen, but does not rule out infection as falsely negative results may occur due to inhibition of PCR, sequence variability underlying the primers and/or probes, or the presence of Mycoplasma hominis in quantities less than the limit of detection of the assay.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Interfering substances may affect the accuracy of this assay; results should always be interpreted in conjunction with clinical and epidemiological findings.
Since Mycoplasma hominis may be part of the normal flora, results should be interpreted accordingly.
This test does not detect other mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas (including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common cause of community acquired pneumonia).
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Stellrecht KA, Woron AM, Mishrik NG, Venezia RA: Comparison of multiplex PCR assay with culture detection of genital mycoplasmas. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:1528-1533
2. Waites KB, Taylor-Robinson D: Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Tenth edition. Edited by J Versalovic. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2011
3. Wylam ME, Kennedy CC, Hernandez NM, et al: Fatal hyperammonemia caused by Mycoplasma hominis. Lancet 2013;382(9908):1956
4. Cunningham SA, Mandrekar JN, Rosenblatt JE, Patel R: Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum. Int J Bacteriol 2013; Vol 2013:168742, 7 pages