Cold Agglutinin Titer, Serum
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
The cold agglutinin titer test is to be used as a tool in the evaluation of suspected cold agglutinin syndrome. In this syndrome, cold agglutinins, usually IgM with anti-I specificity, attach to the patient's erythrocytes causing a variety of symptoms, from chronic anemia due to premature removal of the sensitized erythrocytes from circulation by hemolysis to acrocyanosis of the ears, fingers, or toes due to local blood stasis in the skin capillaries.
Detection of cold agglutinins in patients with suspected cold agglutinin disease
- Negative (no cold agglutinin detected)
- Positive (cold agglutinin detected, titer results will be reported)
- Patients with cold agglutinin syndrome usually exhibit a titer value >1:512, with rare cases reportedly as low as 1:64.
- Normal individuals often have low levels of cold agglutinins.
The test is not a direct measure of clinical significance and must be used in conjunction with other in vitro and in vivo parameters.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Normal individuals may have low levels of cold agglutinins. The cold agglutinins test is not specific for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and is not recommended to diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. See MYCPN/85107 Mycoplasma pneumoniae Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Petz LD, Garratty G: Acquired Immune Hemolytic Anemias. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1980
2. Farratty G, Petz LD, Hoops JK: The correlation of cold agglutinin titrations in saline and albumin with haemolytic anaemia. Br J Haematol 1977;35:587-595