|Values are valid only on day of printing.|
Creatinine is formed from the metabolism of creatine and phosphocreatine, both of which are principally found in muscle. Thus the amount of creatinine produced is in large part dependent upon the individual's muscle mass and tends not to fluctuate much from day-to-day.
Creatinine is not protein-bound and is freely filtered by glomeruli. All of the filtered creatinine is excreted in the urine. Renal tubular secretion of creatinine also contributes to a small proportion of excreted creatinine. Although most excreted creatinine is derived from an individual's muscle, dietary protein intake, particularly of cooked meat, can contribute to urinary creatinine levels.
The renal clearance of creatinine provides an estimate of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since creatinine for the most part in the urine only comes from filtration, the concentration of creatinine reflects overall urinary concentration. Therefore, creatinine can be used to normalize other analytes in a random urine specimen.
Urinary creatinine, in conjunction with serum creatinine, is used to calculate the creatinine clearance, a measure of renal function. In a random specimen, urinary analytes can be normalized by the creatinine concentration to account for the variation in urinary concentrations between subjects.
Decreased creatinine clearance indicates decreased glomerular filtration rate. This can be due to conditions such as progressive renal disease, or result from adverse effect on renal hemodynamics that are often reversible including certain drugs or from decreases in effective renal perfusion (eg, volume depletion or heart failure).
Increased creatinine clearance is often referred to as "hyperfiltration" and is most commonly seen during pregnancy or in patients with diabetes mellitus, before diabetic nephropathy has occurred. It also may occur with large dietary protein intake.
24-Hour specimens are preferred for determining creatinine clearance.
Intraindividual variability in creatinine excretion may be due to differences in muscle mass or amount of ingested meat.
Acute changes in glomerular filtration rate, before a steady-state has developed, will alter the amount of urinary creatinine excreted.
No established reference values
1. Newman DJ, Price CP: Renal function and nitrogen metabolites. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Third edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1999, pp 1204-1270
2. Kasiske BL, Keane WF: Laboratory assessment of renal disease: clearance, urinalysis, and renal biopsy. In The Kidney. Sixth edition. Edited by BM Brenner. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 2000, pp 1129-1170