C1 Esterase (C1ES) Inhibitor Antigen, Serum
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
C1 esterase inhibitor blocks the activation of C1 (first component of the complement cascade) to its active form. The deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor results in the inappropriate activation of C1 and the subsequent release of an activation peptide from C2 with kinin-like activity. This kinin-like peptide enhances vascular permeability. C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency results in hereditary or acquired angioedema. This disease is an autosomal dominant inherited condition, in which exhaustion of the abnormally low levels of C1 esterase inhibitor results in C1 activation, breakdown of C2 and C4, and subsequent acute edema of subcutaneous tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, or the upper respiratory tract. The disease responds to attenuated androgens.
Because 15% of C1 inhibitor deficiencies have nonfunctional protein, some patients will have abnormal functional results (FC1EQ / C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Functional Assay, Serum) in the presence of normal (or elevated) antigen levels.
Diagnosis of hereditary angioedema
Monitoring levels of C1 esterase inhibitor in response to therapy
Abnormally low results are consistent with a heterozygous C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency and hereditary angioedema.
Fifteen percent of hereditary angioedema patients have a normal or elevated level but nonfunctional C1 esterase inhibitor protein. Detection of these patients requires a functional measurement of C1 esterase inhibitor; FC1EQ / C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Functional Assay, Serum.
Measurement of C1q antigen levels; C1Q / Complement C1q, Serum, is key to the differential diagnoses of acquired or hereditary angioedema. Those patients with the hereditary form of the disease will have normal levels of C1q, while those with the acquired form of the disease will have low levels.
Studies in children show that adult levels of C1 inhibitor are reached by 6 months of age.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Quantitation of specific proteins by nephelometric means may not be possible in lipemic sera due to the extreme light scattering properties of the specimen. Turbidity and particles in the specimen may result in extraneous light scattering signals, resulting in variable specimen analysis.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Frank MM: Complement deficiencies. Pediatr Clin North Am 2000;47(6):1339-1354
2. Gelfand JA, Boss GR, Conley CL, et al: Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency and angioedema: a review. Medicine 1979;58(4):321-328
3. Rosen FS, Alper CA, Pensky J, et al: Genetically determined heterogeneity of the C1 esterase inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema. J Clin Invest 1971;50(10):2143-2149
4. Frigas E: Angioedema with acquired deficiency of the C1 inhibitor: a constellation of syndromes. Mayo Clin Proc 1989;64:1269-1275
5. Soldin SJ, Hicks JM, Bailey J, et al: Pediatric reference ranges for estradiol and C1 esterase inhibitor. Clin Chem 1998;44(6s):A17