Barbiturate Confirmation, Urine
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Barbiturates represent a class of drugs that were originally introduced as sleep inducers. Butalbital is also used to control severe headaches. Mephobarbital and phenobarbital are frequently used to control major motor (grand mal) seizures. These drugs are commonly abused as "downers" to induce sleep after an amphetamine- or cocaine-induced "high."
Detecting drug abuse involving barbiturates such as amobarbital, butalbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital
The presence of a barbiturate in urine at >200 ng/mL indicates use of 1 of these drugs.
Most of the barbiturates are fast acting; their presence indicates use within the past 3 days.
Phenobarbital, commonly used to control epilepsy, has a very long half-life. The presence of phenobarbital in urine indicates that the patient has used the drug sometime within the past 30 days.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
No significant cautionary statements. This test is very specific for these compounds.
For chain-of-custody information, see COCH/9426 Chain-of-Custody Processing.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Positives are reported with a quantitative GC-MS result.
BUTALBITAL BY GC-MS
AMOBARBITAL BY GC-MS
PENTOBARBITAL BY GC-MS
SECOBARBITAL BY GC-MS
PHENOBARBITAL BY GC-MS
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Baselt RC, Cravey RH: Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 3rd edition. Chicago, IL, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1989