Amyloidosis, Transthyretin-Associated Familial, Known Mutation
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
The systemic amyloidoses are a number of disorders of varying etiology characterized by extracellular protein deposition. The most common form is an acquired amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) in which the amyloid is composed of immunoglobulin light chains. In addition to light chain amyloidosis, there are a number of acquired amyloidoses caused by the misfolding and precipitation of a wide variety of proteins. There are also hereditary forms of amyloidosis. Due to the clinical overlap between the acquired and hereditary forms, it is imperative to determine the specific type of amyloidosis in order to provide an accurate prognosis and consider appropriate therapeutic interventions.
The most common hereditary amyloidosis is familial transthyretin amyloidosis; an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The resulting amino acid substitutions lead to a relatively unstable, amyloidogenic TTR protein. Most individuals begin to exhibit clinical symptoms between the third and seventh decades of life. Typically, TTR-associated amyloidosis is progressive over a course of 5 to 15 years and the most common cause of death is cardiomyopathy. Affected individuals may present with a variety of symptoms, including peripheral neuropathy, blindness, cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, autonomic nervous dysfunction, or bowel dysfunction.
More than 90 mutations have now been identified within the TTR gene which cause TTR-associated familial amyloidosis. Most of the mutations described to date are single base pair changes that result in an amino acid substitution. Some of these mutations correlate with the clinical presentation of amyloidosis. However, several different mutations have been identified which exhibit considerable clinical overlap.
It is important to note that this assay does not detect mutations associated with non-TTR forms of familial amyloidosis. Therefore, it is important to first test an affected family member to determine if TTR is involved and to document a specific mutation in the family before testing at risk individuals.
Testing of at-risk individuals when a mutation has been identified in an affected family member
An interpretive report will be provided.
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
The identification of a disease-causing mutation in an affected family member is necessary before predictive testing for other family members can be offered. If a familial mutation has not been previously identified, order AMYL / Amyloidosis, Transthyretin-Associated Familial, DNA Sequence, Blood.
Analysis is performed for the familial mutation provided only. This assay does not rule out the presence of other mutations in this gene or in other genes that may be associated with familial amyloidosis.
We strongly recommend that patients undergoing predictive testing receive genetic counseling both prior to testing and after results are available.
Predictive testing of an asymptomatic child is not recommended.
Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Any error in the diagnosis or in the pedigree provided to us, including false-paternity, could lead to erroneous interpretation of results.
A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call Mayo Medical Laboratories for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
An interpretive report will be provided.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
1. Benson MD: The hereditary amyloidoses. Best Pract Res Clin Rhematol 2003;17:909-27
2. Eneqvist T, Sauer-Eriksson AE: Structural distribution of mutations associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy in human transthyretin. Amyloid 2001;8:149-168
3. Connors LH, Lim A, Prokaeva VA, et al: Tabulation of human transthyretin (TTR) variants, 2003. Amyloid 2003;10:160-184