Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis) Antibody, Serum
Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test
Human granulocyte ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a zoonotic infection caused by a rickettsia-like agent. The infection is acquired by contact with Ixodes ticks carrying the HGE agent. The deer mouse is the animal reservoir and, overall, the epidemiology is very much like that of Lyme disease and babesiosis. HGE is most prevalent in the upper Midwest and in other areas of the United States that are endemic for Lyme disease. Since its first description in 1994, there have been approximately 50 cases of HGE described in the upper Midwest.
The cellular target in HGE cases is the neutrophil. The organisms exist in membrane-lined vacuoles within the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Ehrlichial inclusions, called morulae, contain variable numbers of organisms. Single organisms, wrapped in vacuolar membranes have also been observed in the cytoplasm. Ehrlichia species occur in small electron-dense and large electron-lucent forms, but a clear life cycle has not been elucidated.
Diagnosis of human ehrlichiosis has been difficult because the patient's clinical course is often mild and nonspecific, including fever, myalgias, arthralgias, and nausea. This is easily confused with other illnesses such as influenza or other tickborne zoonoses such as Lyme disease, babesiosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Clues to the diagnosis of ehrlichiosis in a patient with an acute febrile illness after tick exposure include laboratory findings of leukopenia or thrombocytopenia and elevated serum aminotransferase levels. However, these findings may also be present in patients with Lyme disease or babesiosis.
As an adjunct in the diagnosis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis
A positive result of an immunoflourescence assay (IFA) test (titer > or = 1:64) suggests current or previous infection with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In general, the higher the titer, the more likely it is that the patient has an active infection.
Seroconversion may also be demonstrated by a significant increase in IFA titers.
During the acute phase of the infection, serologic tests are often nonreactive, PCR testing is available to aid in the diagnosis of these cases (see #84319 "Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Molecular Detection, PCR, Blood").
Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances
Previous episodes of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis may produce a positive serologic result.
In rare instances, clinical evidence of infection may also be derived by direct microscopic examination of Giemsa- or Diff-Quik-stained peripheral blood buffy coat smears, which may reveal clusters of round, dark-purple stained, small dots or clusters of dots (morulae) in the cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear cells. However, this is a very insensitive method.
Performance characteristics have not been established for hemolyzed or lipemic specimens.
Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.
Clinical References Provides recommendations for further in-depth reading of a clinical nature
Bakken JS, Dumler JS, Chen SM, et al: Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the upper Midwest United States. A new species emerging? JAMA 1994;272:212-218