Update in Diagnosis and Management
Increased urinary oxalate is another important risk factor for calcium oxalate stones. Oxalate is a small molecule composed of 2 carbons and 4 oxygens. Since humans have no enzyme to degrade oxalate, it must be eliminated by the urinary or GI tract. The major issue in the urine is that oxalate likes to bind calcium, and calcium oxalate is fairly insoluble. And these calcium oxalate crystals can grow into stones. Certain plants are high in oxalate, such as rhubarb, spinach, and nuts. However, a larger percentage of dietary oxalate comes from foods that are more moderate in oxalate content but eaten in greater amounts, such as potatoes.
What is Oxalate?
Jump to section:
- Kidney Stones
- Why do Kidney Stones Form?
- Genetics and Environment
- Not All Stones are Created Equal: Stone Analysis is Very Helpful
- Laboratory Evaluation
- Supersaturation Index
- Components of the Urinary Supersaturation Profile
- Uses of Urinary Supersaturation
- Common Features Increase Urinary Supersaturation in Patients with Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis
- "Conservative" Dietary Recommendations for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers
- Causes of Hypercalciuria
- Genetic Hypercalciuria
- Genetic Hypercalciuria: Treatment
- What is Oxalate?
- Hyperoxaluria: What is the Relevant Concentration?
- Oxalate Balance on a Typical Western Diet
- Enteric Hyperoxaluria is Caused by Fat Malabsorption
- Control of Urinary Citrate: Largely Due to Systemic Acid Base Balance
- Treatments for Enteric Hyperoxaluria
- Low Urinary Citrate
- Hyperuricosuria is a Risk Factor for Calcium Oxalate Stones
- Uric Acid is Very Insoluble at Low pH
- Calcium Phosphate is Very Insoluble at High pH!
- Cystine Stones
- Struvite stones