The Human Genome Project
In addition to sort of the microarray technologies, there are also proteomic-based strategies. One of the problems and limitations of working with messenger RNA is one is using the messenger RNA as the surrogate for the amount of protein which is produced. Sometimes that is a very good correlation: the more messenger RNA you have, the more protein which is produced. But that is not always the case. In addition, one messenger RNA may produce more than one protein and when you do this determination and you see a messenger RNA has gone up, that does not mean that all of the different isoforms of the protein have also gone up. So high resolution proteomic analysis is much better at actually looking at the amounts of the individual proteins and its strength is that the million proteins in the cell really tells you what’s occurring in the cell. But an important limitation is we do not yet have the technology to examine all million proteins in a cell. At best we can look at just a few thousand. However, this is an ideal strategy for the identification of certain things like early markers for cancer and in many different cancers, having a better strategy to detect that cancer at an earlier stage means that we are going to be able to treat them as those cancers are more treatable.
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- How Do We Obtain Genetic Information?
- Cell Cross-Section
- Different Cell Types
- What Happens When You Sit Outside in the Sun?
- DNA is the Altered Target in Cancer Cells
- DNA Structure
- How to Tackle a Problem as Difficult as Cancer?
- Sequencing DNA
- More on DNA Structure
- Replicating a Strand of DNA
- Developing the Deoxy Chain Terminiation Sequence
- Reading a DNA Sequence
- Gel Electrophoresis
- Two DNA Sequences Seen in Gel Electrophoresis
- Overlapping Pieces of DNA
- Requirements to Sequence the Human Genome?
- Advances in Sanger Sequencing
- Sequencing with Fluorescent Dye
- Advances in Fluorescent Sequencing
- Celera Genomics
- Capacity: 96 Capillary Sequencing
- Computers and the Human Genome Project
- Where are We Today?
- What Have We Learned From Genome Sequences?
- What Can We Do With Sequenced Genomes?
- Transcriptional Profiling (TP)
- Different Technologies to Produce Microarrays
- Utilizing Microarrays to Measure Gene Expression
- Hyrbidization to an Affymetrix Array
- Gene Expression Comparison Between Samples
- Gene Expression Map
- Proteomic-Based Strategies
- Example of a Single Gene
- How Do We Quantify Proteins?
- Differentiate Between Control and Disease State
- Mass Spectrometry
- Electrospray Ionization FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer
- LC-ESI-TOF vs LC-FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry
- What's the Short-term Payoff?
- What's the Long-term Payoff?
- Diagram of Pathways Involved in Steroid Metabolism